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VA 204 Final Project-Portraits

30 Jun


This is my final project for lesson VA 204 Language of Drawing II.In this project we all drew our self portraits on mat 60X80 with soft pastels. The style was free so the colors we used changed from person to person.I prefered to work realistic and that’s the result…


Understanding Structure and Sculpture-VA 202 Final Project

14 Jun




This is my compass! In this final project our aim is to understand and practice structure and the material by creating a sculptural object. We used magnification,subtraction and addition techniques by using the material sytrofoam. My compass is magnified 13 times and it became approximately 135 cm as height. I made 23 parts to come together and tried to make it as much similar to its original. I aimed to make it stand on its half circle but couldn’t so made it hung on the ceiling and gave it a sculptural sense.

VA 204 1st Project

24 May


This is the first project for the lesson VA 204 Language of Drawing 2. In this project all of us tried to reflect our dreams to the painting. We worked for approximately 5 weeks and used soft pastels. In my dream I saw the death of a person I love and tried to show the mourning scene in my work.I mostly used contrast between colors to give that “dark” sense of death.I really like the dramatic effect of light and shadow so tried to use as much as I can.

VA 203 Final Project

24 May

DSC_0232cfinal son

This is my final drawing for the lesson VA 203 Language of Drawing 1; which is a drawing of a head chosen from Archaeological Museum. According to whole semester my first draft was the worst of all my drawings that I had during the lessons so I repeated the project three times and at last I did this one. Actually I am happy with the result…

A Look to “Graphic Designer”s World…

22 Apr

Ruedi Baur, designer. Diploma in Graphic Design at the School for Art and Design Zurich in 1979. Since 1989 in Paris and 2002 in Zurich his ateliers intégral ruedi baur et associés and integral ruedi baur zürich develop two- and threedimensional projects in different fields of visual communication. He has been teaching on a regular basis since 1987. From 1989 until 1994 he headed the design department of the École des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, between 1993 and 1996 the graduate programme espace civiques et design. 1995 he is appointed professor for corporate design at the Leipzig School for Art and Design, where he also takes on the rectorate from 1997 until 2000. 1999 he founds the institute for interdisciplinary design 2id. Since 2004 Ruedi Baur has been heading the research institute Design2context at the School of Art and Design Zurich.



I really like his style! He uses typography as his main source and nearly on all his works he creates a colorful pattern with letters. Here are some of his designs. I searched for him in a book and really admired one of his works but couldn’t find it on the web. Still searching with hope to update my post…


Good design doesn’t have to be complicated. Sometimes the best ideas are the most straightforward”


Based in Sydney, via London and Canada, Vince Frost began his creative ascent in 1989 working for Pentagram London, becoming their youngest Associate just three years later at age 27. Staring his own creative studio, Frost Design, in 1994, he has created award-winning work for clients as diverse as The Independent newspaper, Nike, The Spice Girls, Macquarie Bank and Sydney Dance Company. Vinces work links the divide between art and commerce, and includes anything from postage stamps to magazines, books, identities, TV advertising, art direction, online and the built environment. His career arc has been documented in a retrospective at the Sydney Opera House and in a 500-page book, and by Awards from many design societies.

I admired his works! While searching for favorite graphic designers I faced with his digital works and the way he uses to combine letters together, I mean his ability to load very dense meanings to the letters just charmed me. Then I decided to search more about him and found his design company. The works they done are just amazing I felt like I just want to work for such a company. Here are some of his and his company members works under different disciplines such as; posters, television, magazines, motion, digital,environmental ,book design, identities, corporate literature. My best is the poster work for Sydney Design Company!






David Carson is an American graphic designer. He is best known for his innovative magazine design, and use of experimental typography. He was the art director for the magazine Ray Gun. Carson was perhaps the most influential graphic designer of the nineties. In particular, his widely-imitated aesthetic defined the so-called “grunge” era.


  • Carson, David (1995). The End of Print: The Graphic Design of David Carson. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0811811999.
  • Carson, David (1997). David Carson: 2nd Sight: Grafik Design After the End of Print. Universe Publishing. ISBN 0789301288.
  • Meggs, Phillip B.; David Carson (1999). Fotografiks: An Equilibrium Between Photography and Design Through Graphic Expression That Evolves from Content. Laurence King. ISBN 1856691713.
  • Stecyk, Craig; David Carson (2002). Surf Culture: The Art History of Surfing. Laguna Art Museum in association with Gingko Press. ISBN 1584231130.
  • Mcluhan, Marshall; David Carson, Eric McLuhan, Terrance Gordon (2003). The Book of Probes. Gingko Press. ISBN 1584230568.
  • Carson, David (2004). Trek: David Carson, Recent Werk. Gingko Press. ISBN 1584230460.
  • Mayne, Thom; David Carson (2005). Ortlos: Architecture of the Networks. Hatje Cantz Publishers. ISBN 3775716521.


During the period of 1989 – 2004, David Carson has won over 170 Awards for his work in graphic design. Some of these awards include:

  • Best Overall Design, Society of Publication Designers in New York.
  • Cover of the Year, Society of Publication Designers in New York.
  • Award of Best Use of Photography in Graphic Design
  • Designer of the Year 1998, International Center of Photography
  • Designer of the Year 1999, International Center of Photography
  • Master of Typography, Graphics magazine (NY)
  • The most famous graphic designer on the planet, April 2004 – London Creative Review magazine (London)




22 Apr


















              Throughout the history one of the most important struggle that society has been fighting with is the gender inequality. Women are faced with discrimination which makes them exposed of making decisions and using advantages of social life with respect to the gender based socialization gap. Thus gender roles  can be classified as learned behavior that are affected by the change over time depending on the attitudes, tasks and responsibilities which are perceived as male or female. These gendered social roles are mostly visible in business environment as a component of social life.

According to Tanilli (2006), “The repulsion of women does not depend on women’s physiological environment; it is the reason of history. There is not such a thing as ‘Women Environment’ or ‘eternal women’; history of women (without splitting from general and also men’s history) is a history which evolved slowly by depending on both genders’ equality.” He stated that, “It is impossible to oppose to the women revolution since 19th and 20th century.” (p.45)

After the French Revolution, with the 19th and 20th century there starts a new evolution age for women rights. The gender equality becomes foregone conclusion however it does not occur in every area homogeneously. Although there seems to be equality between genders, women are still paid less than men in business life and women slavery (which means the housework) does not end.

In the social role theory (Eagly&Diekmann, 2005), the distribution of genders into social roles is given as the basic step.  It is generalized that women mostly deal with tasks related to caring for others, for example homemaker and nurse. Their communal characteristics such as being kind and sensitive are essential properties for these specific roles. Likewise it is also generalized that men mostly deal with tasks related to leadership or power. In this generalization the agentic characteristics of men (such as being independent and competitive) are required.

The entry of women into male dominated roles starts to be important in the mid 20th century. According to Fullerton (1999), “Women have greatly increased their presence in the paid labor force since 1950, and they are projected to continue this increase.” As a more specific example Tanilli’s (2006) study mentions that, women’s entry into the job of lawyer in France at 1900 was a really big approach for women world . In addition to that Center for American Women and Politics’ research (2005) states, “Women have increased their occupancy of leadership roles within organizations and academia.” The other two researches (Astin, Oseguera, Sax& Korn,2002; Eagly& Karau,2002) illustrates, in contrast to rise of women majors in business, medicine and law since 1965, men’s occupancy of the highest levels of leadership roles have remained stable. Even though, in the very large work areas although most of the things seem equal there is a 12% difference between men’s and women’s income.(Tanilli,2006, p.64).

The large shifts in female gender roles related to agency cannot help women to get rid of their communal characteristics. Bianchi and Robinson’s (2004) study found the following: Women have actually slightly increased their time with children as a primary activity, as revealed by comparison of time use diaries from the mid-1960s through the late 1990s. Men’s time with children has increased over these years, resulting in smaller differences in men’s and women’s hours per day with children, although women’s total time with children remains about twice that of men.

It is still visible that, “Even women’s increased occupancy of paid work roles can contribute to the perception of stability in women’s communion, because women remain concentrated in jobs related to communal characteristics.”(Cejka & Eagly,1999). Related to that it is also known that the workplace where women is most active is certainly the houses ; although majority of the society does not accept housework as a part of business environment. Thus the result of researches (Tanilli, 2006) shows that when men share their lives with women the time that they spend on house works increased from 32% to 35% between the years 1986 and 1999.(p.65)

In conclusion, by depending on the idea “With regard to cross-temporal changes in roles, the clear pattern is change in roles related to agency but stability in roles related to communion, as well as greater role change among women than among men.” (England, Budig, & Folbre, 2002) it can be easily said that womanhood is accepted in justice, labor force and even in the position of employers however there still exists some barriers in front of the femininity that cannot be pass beyond.

















Diekman, A., & Goodfriend, W. (2006). Rolling With The Changes: A Role Congruity.

Fainstein, S., & Servon, L. (2007). On Gender and Planning: Some Things Old,Some Things New. Journal of the American Planning Association .

Tanilli, S. (2006). Ne Olursa Olsun Savaşıyorlar. İstanbul: Alkım Yayınevi.





20 Apr

Note: This essay is written using manual American Psychological Association (APA) Format

according to Purdue University Online Writing Lab(OWL)



Running head:  ADVERTISING





Advertısıng As An Effıcıent Cause on People’s choıces:

When A Truth Totally Changes













The paper will argue how commercial advertising as an important issue of visual culture can be seen as an efficient cause on people’s choices during their everyday lives. The advertiser makes categorization on his/ her field as covert advertising, television commercials, infomercials and newer media and advertising approaches and this creates the outfall to occur interaction that involves public perception of the medium.

The aim of the writing in the visual culture context is a process of exemplification on advertising sector and its effects based on memories and behavior as psychological concepts. That means the past experience and state of mind of the person subjected to advertising may determine the impact that advertising has. Advertising is a way of communication which creates a public and at the same time personal sense that aims to persuade potential customers to consume more of a particular brand of product or service.

The complexion of the writing can be shaped on improving new media techniques and advertisers’ approaches. Mobile telephone screens, billboards, street furniture components, radio, cinema and television ads, web banners, web pop-ups, bus stop benches, magazines, newspapers etc. can be given as examples of developing media techniques which facilitates advertisers’ job to persuade potential customers. Public perception of the medium can be seen as an important fact in the success of advertising just as cited in Jean Kilbourne’s work(2006), “As advertising critic Sut Jhally put it: ‘To not be influenced by advertising would be to live outside of culture. No human being lives outside of culture.’’ For the best result there comes front some necessities such as the usage of language, colors, signs, shapes, fonts etc.

The paper will conclude by discussing the influence of advertising on culture and as a last step it will be connected to the popular culture’s daily lives and their approaches to the advertisement sector during the continued era.

Keywords: advertisement, visual language, media techniques, public sense

Advertısıng As An Effıcıent Cause on People’s choıces:

When A Truth Totally Changes


An Introduction To Visual Culture By Advertising




Advertising is a way of communication which creates a public and at the same time personal sense that aims to persuade potential customers to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. It is a field that people can use their visual language as much impressive as possible. So what means visual language and in what ways this language can be used to create efficient influences on public? A visual language is a set of practices by which images can be used to communicate concepts. Think about your daily life. To persuade your parents to go out at night or to make believe your boyfriend or girlfriend that you love him/ her you try to use your language more impressive than any other times. Just like in your daily lives in the field of advertisement you need to use your both daily life language and visual language together. Besides that it is also important that you create your work according to your target group. After the association of these elements, audience will pay more attention on your product or service that you supply. In opposition to that as informed in Kilbourne’s work(2006) most people feel that advertising is not something to take serious. Although much more attention has been paid to the cultural impact of advertising in recent years than ever before, just about everyone still feels personally exempt from its influence. He exemplifies this diagnosis by giving place to what he hears from his scholars (2006),  “I hear more than anything else at my lectures is: ‘I don’t pay attention to ads… I just tune them out… they have no effect on me.’ I hear this most from people wearing clothes emblazoned with logos.” In his example he tries to attract attention to the point that even if someone argues that he/she doesn’t care about advertisements, is also under the effect of them. Kilbourne(2006) continues his argument  saying that there is no way to tune out this much information, especially when it is designed to break through the ‘tuning out’ process. At that point it is obvious that public’s perception of medium is the most important fact that make an advertisement successful. As advertising critic Sut Jhally puts it, ‘To not be influenced by advertising would be to live outside of culture. No human being lives outside of culture.’(Kilbourne, 2006)

The way that advertisers choose is such kind of propaganda tactics. As Joseph Goebbels says, “This is the secret of propaganda: those who are to be persuaded by it should be completely immersed in the ideas of the propaganda, without ever noticing that they are being immersed in it.”(Kilbourne, 2006) In that sense Kilbourne(2006) supports his claim as, “While we’re laughing, sometimes sneering, the commercial does its work.”

Mobile telephone screens, billboards, street furniture components, radio, cinema and television ads, web banners, web pop-ups, bus stop benches, magazines, newspapers etc. can be given as examples of developing media techniques which facilitates advertisers’ job to persuade potential customers. Under these categorizes there come some other tactics that advertisers use to redound the viewer sympathy to the product. Creating a relationship between a product and the customer by using artificial needs and human desires is one of common tactics that advertisers prefer to use.  Kilbourne(2006) summarizes this belief in his work as:

 “It may be that there is no other way to depict relationships when the ultimate goal is to sell products. But this apparently bottomless consumerism not only depletes the world’s resources, it also depletes our inner resources. It leads inevitably to narcissism and solipsism. It becomes difficult to imagine a way of relating that isn’t objectifying and exploitative.”

By depending on his generalization it can be said that the past experience and state of mind of the person subjected to advertising may determine the impact that advertising has.


A Brief History of Advertising



In todays popular culture all consumers want companies to tell what they stand for and what makes them unique. In that sense advertising idea is a huge field to talk about. If aim is to understand the development of that field, there occurs a need to learn a bit about history of advertising. This brief history is totally connected with the development of language and people’s effort to tell their self-expressions. Related to that invention of print, radio, TV and internet come front in the sense of sonic and visual language which is important materials of advertising field. So it makes us to turn back to Sumerians era when trade can be seen as the outfall of advertising sector. About 3000 BC Sumerians are the first inventors of pictograms scratched on clay tablets and these cuneiforms which represent sound and ideas, become the language of trade; in other words advertisement. Then thousand years later Egyptians continue to speak in that language and with hieroglyphics they develop word and sound concepts. They invent outdoor advertising, carving public notices on stelae. Phoenician traders make this language to spread all over the world by taking the cuneiform writing to the Greeks who are the creators of 22 character alphabet. Then long time later world’s first sonic logo is created by Greek ladies who produce “come hither” sound effects by tapping nails into their shoes. So language earns a different quality and sonic language is formed. These developments are followed by the invention of paper in China which really facilitates trade. 1140s are the important years to talk about one more different quality of language and visual language occurs with the invention of metal type and printing by Gutenberg. After that invention in 1631, French “La Gazette” prints the first classified newspaper ads. In continuing period new form of newspapers occurred and in 1719 “Tatler” becomes the world’s first magazine. With the movement of Jacob Christian Le Blon to London in 1719, color print service using red, blue and yellow is bunched. Here it is important to remind color is a very useful element while forming an ad and the colors red, blue and yellow are classified as the main ones in the scale. During that era there comes out some ideas about advertising fact one of them comes from Dr. Samuel Johnson who is the creator of the world’s first dictionary and he says, “Promise, large promise, is the soul of advertisement.” In 1750 it becomes obvious that Britain is the leading country of the world in advertising field. In following years there occurs some developments in print technology but one of the most important inventions in visual sense is the birth of photography. It is a new step for people to express themselves better.1841 is an important year in that time line because in that year in Philadelphia the first ad agency is set up by Volney Palmer. After 1860s many innovations are realized in communication area such as the invention of telegraph, telephone, phonograph, cinematographic camera and projector etc. In last decades of 19th century trade shows itself one more time in advertising area and in 1892 direct marketing is born. In 20th century advertising becomes really important. In 1914 The Federal Trade Commission regulates ads and after three years later The American Association of Advertising Agencies is founded. These foundations are followed by Frank Conrad in 1920 and he founds KDKA the world’s first commercial radio station. After radio becomes an important device for advertising A.C Neilson Research is made which is the first time radio audiences are observed and measured. In 1925 Scottish inventor John Logie Baird ushers in the TV era with the world’s first real TV picture in his laboratory and TV is first shown to the British public in 1926. Then the TV commercials are started to be made and the first commercial is shot in 1930. 1940s are the propaganda era which is caused by Second World War. Two decades later David Ogilvy ushers in the modern advertising age with a little advice for marketing men. By the time internet is conceived and Thomas Marill and Lavrence Roberts publish the first paper on Network Experiments: “Towards a Cooperative Network of Time- Shared Computers”. Advertising is not always a free path to reach consumers because advertisers are faced with some obstacles. One of them is faced in 1971; Congress bans cigarette ads from TV and radio. Three years before millennium e-commerce is invented. Then in 2004 search giant Google goes public. The business is valued at $23 billion. Two years later in UK, online advertising takes 11% of media expenditure around €2 billion and outstrips press advertising for the first time since the launch of The Daily Courant in 1702. In present Haptics is the touchy feely science that gives physical feedback in gaming. The development of new computer illusions feels so close you can touch it. It will probably become leading technique in advertisement field to get attention of public.

Standardized Tactics Used By Advertisers

 After developing our knowledge on historical background of advertising field, it should be interrogated that the qualities and techniques that are used to impress audiences and consumers socially. In advertising sector 5M is very important to reach that impressive effect. Money you think to spend for the advertisement, message that you want to give, mission which expresses the aim while making it, measurement which observes the effect of advertisement on public and the last one usage of media such as TV, radio, newspaper, magazine etc. Besides those necessities an advertisement should be interesting, impressive, original and creative. However creativity depends on some standards. Most of the companies follow their rivals while creating their own product and its advertisement. For example to reach people’s desires usage of sexuality, related to that gender roles and human bodies are used extensively.

Figure 1 BMW Car Advertisement


This BMW car advertisement includes a young couple in bed making love to each other. However, her face is completely covered by a magazine, open to a double-page photo of a car. The man is gazing passionately at the car. The copy reads, ‘The ultimate attraction.’ In this example woman is equalized with a car image and the passion of love used to show the passion of men to cars.

As Kilbourne(2006) states in his work we are surrounded by hundreds, thousands of messages every day that link our deepest emotions to products, that objectify people and trivialize our most heartfelt moments and relationships. Every emotion is used to sell us something. According to Alfred(1981) :

“The power of advertising may take the form of influence or the less desirable form of manipulation. Advertising that manipulates can create artificial wishes and needs. Hidden persuaders in advertising can encourage thoughtless and wasteful spending, such as buying a new car every year.”

With his statements Kilbourne(2006) also supports him. As he says our wish to protect our children is leveraged to make us buy an expensive car. A long marriage simply provides the occasion for a diamond necklace. A painful reunion between a father and his estranged daughter is dramatized to sell us a phone system. Everything in the world; nature, animals, people are just so much stuff to be consumed or to be used to sell us something..

Figure 2 Chupa Chups Advertisement


In that example a sexy woman body is used to get    attention of the consumers. Both the girl image and the pink color which express sweet feeling get people interested in the candy and make them want to try it. It is obvious that advertisers turn people into objects. Women’s bodies and men’s bodies are packaged and used to sell everything from chainsaws to chewing gum, champagne to shampoo. In that sense Kilbourne(2006) points out that self-image is deeply affected and he says, “The self-esteem of girls plummets as they reach adolescence partly because they cannot possibly escape the message that their bodies are objects, and imperfect objects at that. Boys learn that masculinity requires a kind of ruthlessness, even brutality.”  Research by Martin and Genry(1997) propose that young girls compare their physical attractiveness with that of advertising models and subsequently, their self- perceptions and self-esteem may be affected, depending on the motive for social comparison. The nature of physical attractiveness differs for male and female adolescents. Girls tend to view their bodies as ‘objects’, and their physical beauty determines how they and others judge their overall value. Boys tend to view their bodies as ‘process’ and power and function are more important criteria for evaluating their physical self (Franzoi 1995) In Allen’s paper(2001) same situation is stated as :

While physical attractiveness certainly impacts how persons view other people and objects, recent studies have examined the notion of gender stereotypes (Deaux and Lewis 1984). Research by Broverman et al (1972) found that women tend to be perceived as warmer and more expressive than men and men tend to be perceived as more competent and rational.”

Advertising encourages us not only to objectify each other but to feel passion for products rather than our partners so it makes them addictive. Depending on that, Kilbourne(2006) names addict as the ideal consumer. Advertisers spend enormous amounts of money on psychological research and understand addiction well.

Figur  3A jewel advertisement                                                                   Figure 4 A vodka ad.

culture6                                      culture9



 Figure 5 Calvin Klein Perfume Advertisement

Advertisers use these addictions in different ways while aiming different targets. In reaction Rossi(2001) points out, “Consumers are apt to draw hard lines between supportive and unsupportive imagery, and those who air it.” For example in figure 3 we see a woman trying to bite her fingers which all have different rings on. Here advertiser tries to point out the women’s jewel passion. Figure 4 totally calls different target group; alcohol lovers. It seems problematic but the advertiser prefers to use religion while making an alcoholic drink advertisement and make connection with addiction to alcohol and religion. It shows us that advertising is not only our physical environment, it is increasingly our spiritual environment as well but   interested in materialistic values only. There are some examples from advertisements: Eternity is a perfume by Calvin Klein (Figure 5). Infiniti is an automobile, and Hydra Zen a moisturizer. Jesus is a brand of jeans. Media critic Neil Postman referred to this as ‘cultural rape’.

Influence of Advertising On Culture



According to Greenberg’s article in Adweek(2007), “When messages were the most important thing we could convey as an industry, we created a fantastic body of work. The collective reel of the era of traditional advertising displays an amazing range of ideas, craftsmanship and exemplary execution.” Some argue that advertising simply reflects societal values rather than affecting them. As cited in Kilbourne’s research (2006) a former editor-in-chief of Advertising Age, the leading advertising publication in North America, once claims, “Only eight percent of an ad’s message is received by the conscious mind. The rest is worked and re-worked deep within, in the recesses of the brain.” 

Although it is virtually impossible to measure the influence of advertising on a culture, we can learn something by looking at cultures only recently exposed to it. Today in all over the world it is obvious that people become coffee lovers. What is the outfall of that addiction then? The answer is probably so clear: Increasing number of Starbucks and Gloria Jean’s Coffee Shops. On the streets it is possible to see one of them in every corner. Kilbourne(2006) generalizes this situation as, “As multinational chains replace local character, we end up in a world in which everyone is Gapped and Starbucked.” (Figure 6 & Figure 7)





Figure 6: Starbucks logo                                            Figure 7: Gap logo


According to him advertising creates a world view that is based upon cynicism, dissatisfaction and craving.

We can say today’s popular culture is living their lives according to the advertisers imagination of world. They are not only affected by advertisements but change their lives depending on the path that advertisers draw for them.





  • Bob Greenberg (2007, October). Add and Subtract. Adweek, 48(36), 18.  Retrieved January 17, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1366698951).


  • Dom Rossi (2001, October). New media metric: What’s the point here? Brandweek, 42(39), 26.  Retrieved January 17, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 85705252).


  • Allen, Charlotte Ann (2001) Stereotypes in retail print advertising: The effects of gender and physical appearance on consumer perceptions. Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Texas, United States — Texas. Retrieved January 17, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Publication No. AAT 3073697).


  • Mary C Martin,  James W Gentry. (1997). Stuck in the model trap: The effects of beautiful models in ads on female pre-adolescents and adolescents. Journal of Advertising, 26(2), 19-33.  Retrieved January 17, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 13652501).



·         Kilbourne, J. (2006, September). Jesus is a Brand of Jeans.


·         Nonline Agency. Retrieved January 10, 2009 from Nonline Agency Web site:

  • Grosser, Alfred (1981, October). Political, Moral, Social Impact of Advertising. Direct Marketing, 44(6), 94.  Retrieved January 17, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1054721)